USDA: Dairy Cows Must Be Tested for Bird Flu Before Moving Between States

On April 24, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued a federal order requiring all lactating dairy cattle to receive a negative test for Influenza A virus before being transported between states. This comes after an outbreak of the avian influenza virus, or "bird flu," was detected in cows in March. Although the virus has not yet been detected in beef cattle, the order only pertains to dairy cows and will go into effect on April 29.

The USDA's mandate is intended to prevent the spread of the virus, which has been increasingly detected in cows across the United States. The order will not apply to other types of dairy cows initially, but the USDA stated that it may introduce additional testing requirements in the future, based on scientific factors concerning the virus and its evolving risk profile.

The spread of the virus among ruminants has raised concerns that it could evolve to transmit easily between humans. The World Health Organization has confirmed 889 cases across 23 countries since 2003, resulting in 463 deaths. Although the risk to the public remains low, officials are urging manufacturers to develop and distribute vaccines against the avian influenza virus.

This announcement has sparked criticism from many who view the mandate as another example of government overreach into the agriculture industry. Others are concerned that the virus is being spread through food contamination during the processing of infected animals. The USDA's order intends to slow the spread of the virus but many farmers and ranchers are concerned about the economic impact of these new regulations.

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Prospective observational study of peripheral intravenous cannula utilisation and frequency of intravenous fluid delivery in the emergency department: convenience or necessity?

Introduction Over one billion peripheral intravenous cannulas (PIVCs) are inserted worldwide each year. Insertion of PIVCs is associated with pain, phlebitis, occlusion, and medication extravasation as well as the risk of catheter-associated infection, with an associated cost to departmental resources. Previous studies have not assessed if intravenous (IV) fluid delivery